Peripheral Vascular and EndoVascular Surgery Center

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Aortic Aneurysm related FAQ

What is Aortic aneurysm?

In this condition, aorta is abnormally enlarged predisposing it to rupture and internal bleeding and possibly death.

Aortic aneurysm is an abnormal bulge that occurs in the wall of aorta that carries blood from heart to body. Aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere in the aorta. Abdominal aortic aneurysms often grow slowly and usually without symptoms, making them difficult to detect. Some aneurysms will never rupture. Many start small and stay small, although many expand over time. Others expand quickly.

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What are the causes of aortic aneurysm?

Although the exact cause of aortic aneurysms is unknown, a number of factors may play a role,
  • Tobacco use- Cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco use increase the risk of aortic
  • aneurysms. Smoking causes fatty plaque formation in the arteries (atherosclerosis) and high blood
    pressure. Smoking can also cause the aneurysm to grow faster by further damaging the aorta.
  • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis)- Atherosclerosis occurs when fat and other substances
  • build upon the lining of a blood vessel, increasing your risk of an aneurysm.
  • Infection in the aorta (vasculitis)- In rare cases, the aortic aneurysm may be caused by an infection or
  • inflammation that weakens a section of the aortic wall.

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    What are the symptoms of aortic aneurysm?

    Some of the symptoms of an aortic aneurysm are:

    • Shortness of breath
    • A croaky or raspy voice
    • Backache
    • Pain in the left shoulder or between shoulder blades
    • Sudden and severe pain
    • Sudden stomach pain, lower back pain, or flu-like symptoms
    • Pain or tenderness below the stomach
    • Fever
    • Weight loss

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    What are the risk factors of aortic aneurysm?

    Some of the risk factors of aortic aneurysm are:

    • Atherosclerosis
    • High blood pressure
    • Smoking
    • Pregnancy
    • Sex- Men have about double the incidence of aortic dissection.
    • Age- The incidence of aortic dissection peaks in the 60s and 80s
    • Deep wounds, injuries, or infections of the blood vessels
    • Genetic factor
    • Narrowing of the aorta at birth (aortic coarctation)

    Certain genetic diseases increase the risk of aortic dissection-
    • Turner's syndrome
    • Marfan syndrome
    • Other connective tissue disorders
    • Inflammatory or infectious conditions

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    What is the treatment of aortic aneurysm?

    Treatment may vary from watchful waiting to emergency surgery depending on the size and rate at which aortic aneurysm is growing. Ruptured aortic aneurysms are life threatning thus a close monitoring is essential so that timely surgery can be planned.

    There are two types of surgery for aortic aneurysms.

    • Open surgery - It involves removing the damaged section of the aorta and replacing it with a synthetic tube (graft), which is sewn into place, through an open-abdominal approach. With this type of surgery, it will likely take you a month or more to fully recover.
    • Endovascular surgery is a less invasive procedure sometimes used to repair an aneurysm. Doctors attach a synthetic graft to the end of a thin tube (catheter) that's inserted through an artery in your leg and threaded up into your aorta. The graft is placed at the site of the aneurysm and fastened in place with small hooks or pins. The graft reinforces the weakened section of the aorta to prevent rupture of the aneurysm.

    Recovery time for people who have endovascular surgery is shorter than for people who have openabdominal surgery. However, follow-up appointments are more frequent because endovascular grafts can leak. Follow-up ultrasounds are generally done every six months for the first year, and then once a year after that. Long-term survival rates are similar for both endovascular surgery and open surgery.

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    AV Fistula related FAQ

    What is AV Fistula?

    In chronic kidney disease patients dialysis access is very important. Thus a planned surgery by a specialized vascular surgeon is very crucial for management of chronic kidney disease patients.

    An AV fistula is a passage between a vein and an artery. It is required to be formed surgically in chronic kidney disease patients for dialysis access. It requires advance planning because a fistula takes a while after surgery to develop. A surgeon creates an aAV fistula by connecting an artery directly to a vein, frequently in the forearm.

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    What is an arteriovenous graft?

    If you have small veins making fistula formation difficult, you can get vascular access that connects an artery to a vein using a synthetic tube, or graft, implanted under the skin in your arm. A graft doesn't need to develop as a fistula does, so it can be used sooner after placement, often within 2 or 3 weeks. Grafts tend to have more complications like clotting and infection and need replacement sooner.

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    What is a venous catheter?

    If your kidney disease has progressed quickly, you may need a venous catheter as a temporary access. A catheter is a tube inserted into a vein in your neck, chest, or leg near the groin. It has two chambers to allow a two-way flow of blood. Catheters are not ideal for permanent access as they can clog, become infected, and cause narrowing of the veins in which they are placed.

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    What are the complications of AV fistula?

    All three types of vascular access av fistula, av graft, and venous catheter can develop complications. The most common complications are access infection and low blood flow due to blood clotting.

    Venous catheters are most prone to develop infection and clotting problems that may require medication and catheter removal or replacement.

    AV grafts can also develop both these complications. In case of clotting, av graft may require angioplasty ( a procedure to widen the narrowed segment) or replacement.

    These complications are less common in av fistulas.

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    How should i take care of my vascular access?

    There are several ways with which you can take care of your Vascular Access. Some of the foot care methods are mentioned below:
    • Make sure your nurse or technician checks your access before each treatment.
    • Keep your access clean at all times.
    • Use your access site only for dialysis.
    • Be careful not to bump or cut your access.
    • Don't let anyone put a blood pressure cuff on your access arm.
    • Don't wear jewelry or tight clothes over your access site.
    • Don't sleep with your access arm under your head or body.
    • Don't lift heavy objects or put pressure on your access arm.
    • Check the pulse in your access every day.

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    Carotid Artery Diseases related FAQ

    What is Carotid artery disease?

    In this disease, carotid arteries get blocked due to fatty plaque deposits. These plaques cause disturbed blood flow predisposing to blood clot formation in brain which can lead to paralysis or loss of vision. Thus, timely treatment of this condition is very crucial.

    Carotid artery disease is a condition in which blood supply to a part of brain suffers due to atherosclerosis or fatty plaque deposition in carotid arteries or its branches.

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    What are the symptoms of carotid artery disease?

    • Sudden numbness or weakness in the face or limbs, often on one side of the body
    • Sudden trouble speaking and understanding
    • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
    • Sudden dizziness or loss of balance
    • Sudden, severe headache with no known cause

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    What are the risk factors of carotid artery diseases?

    Below are the risk factors of carotid artery diseases:
    • High blood pressure- Excess pressure on artery walls can weaken them and make them more vulnerable to damage.
    • Tobacco use- Nicotine can irritate the inner lining of your arteries. Smoking also increases your heart rate and blood pressure.
    • Diabetes- Diabetes lowers your ability to process fats efficiently, placing you at greater risk of high blood pressure and atherosclerosis.
    • High blood-fat levels- High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides, a blood fat, encourage the accumulation of plaques.
    • Family history- Your risk of carotid artery disease is higher if a relative has atherosclerosis or coronary artery disease.
    • Age- Arteries become less flexible and more prone to injury with age.
    • Obesity- Excess weight increases your chances of high blood pressure, atherosclerosis and diabetes.
    • Sleep apnea- Spells of stopping breathing at night may increase your risk of stroke.
    • Lack of exercise- It contributes to conditions that damage your arteries, including high blood pressure

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    How to diagnose carotid artery diseases?

    Below are the methods to diagnose carotid artery diseases:
    • History and physical examination- A thorough history and physical examination help in making the diagnosis.
    • Ultrasound- to assess blood flow and pressure in the carotid arteries.
    • Arteriography- This can be used to confirm the findings of ultrasound imaging which can be uncertain in some cases. Arteriography is an X-ray of the carotid artery taken when a special dye is injected into the artery.
    • CT or MRI- to look for the ischaemic site or other abnormalities.
    • CT angiography or MR angiography- to locate the particular vessel which is thrombosed.

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    How to prevent carotid artery disease?

    Below are the methods to prevent carotid artery diseases:
    • Don't smoke- Within a few years of quitting, a former smoker's risk of stroke is similar to a nonsmoker's.
    • Maintain a healthy weight- Being overweight contributes to other risk factors, such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea.
    • Limit cholesterol and fat- Cutting back on saturated fat, in particular, may reduce the buildup of plaques in your arteries.
    • Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables- They contain nutrients such as potassium, folate, and antioxidants, which may protect against a TIA or stroke.
    • Limit salt- Excess salt may increase blood pressure in people who are sensitive to sodium.
    • Exercise regularly- Exercise can lower your blood pressure, increase your level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improve the overall health of your blood vessels and heart. It also helps you lose weight, control diabetes, and reduce stress.
    • Limit alcohol.

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    What is the treatment of carotid artery disease?

    Surgical treatment includes the following surgeries:

    Carotid endarterectomy

    Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure in which a doctor removes fatty deposits blocking one of the two carotid arteries, the main supply of blood for the brain. The surgery has been found highly beneficial for persons who have already had a stroke or experienced the symptoms of a stroke and have a severe stenosis of 70 to 99 percent.

    Carotid Stent

    In this procedure, a stent is placed in the blocked artery thereby restoring the blood supply to the brain.

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    Diabetic Foot related FAQ

    What is Diabetic Foot?

    In diabetic foot patients, sugar levels are high. They also have neuropathy and vascular disease, all these factors result in high incidence of ulcers in diabetic patients which require specialized care.

    Diabetes is a common chronic condition that can cause a number of serious complications. Ulcers in feet are one of the most common. In many cases serious complications can be prevented if diabetic patients are aware of proper feet care, Diabetic foot treatment in Jaipur.

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    What are diabetic foot problems?

    There are mainly 2 types of problems of the foot due to diabetes:
    • Foot infection
    • Foot ulceration

    They can also develop neuropathy (damaged nerves) or peripheral vascular disease (blocked arteries) of the legs and either can lead to foot ulceration.

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    How to prevent diabetic foot problems?

    If diabetes foot treatment in jaipur is well controlled it is possible to avoid these foot problems. However, peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease make them prone to few complications. Early recognition of infection and early treatment of ulcers can help prevent complications.

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    Who is at risk of developing a diabetic feet ulcer?

    Generally every person with diabetes has increased risk of developing foot ulceration and needs to take precautions. However, the risk is higher in:

    • Severe neuropathy
    • Severe peripheral vascular disease
    • Coexisting abnormalities of the shape of the foot which makes them prone for callus
    • In poorly controlled diabetics
    • There is a past history of foot ulceration due to diabetes (because the above factors often persist)

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    Foot Care for Diabetic Foot

    There are several ways with which you can take care of your feet. Foot Spas are not recommended for diabetics foot treatment in Jaipur with neuropathy or vascular disease. Wear thick socks with well-cushioned and closed shoes which are large enough to fit the foot and socks. Some of the foot care methods are mentioned below:

    Daily foot care to prevent Diabetic Foot

    Examine your feet carefully daily for:
    • Bruises
    • Cracks in skin
    • Soggy skin
    • Dry skin
    • Swelling
    • Corns and calluses
    • Ingrown toenails
    • Blisters
    • Sharp toenails
    • Discoloration

    Check for Corns and Calluses

    Corns and calluses can be a problem. They cause pressure and can lead to ulceration. Never trim or cut corn yourself. Never use a corn pad, it can burn the skin and may develop an ulcer from this. Using a pumice stone can also be dangerous, as you cannot feel your feet. The only safe way to treat a corn or callus is to see a podiatrist.

    Wash your feet every day with warm water and mild soap. Make sure it is not too hot. Dry your feet, especially between the toes. If the skin between your toes becomes white and soggy apply some methylated spirits using a cotton bud. If the problem doesn't go away in a couple of days, see your doctor. Apply cream or moisturizer into your feet to stop them from getting dry and cracked.

    Nail care

    Do not cut your nails too short. Cut your nails straight across. Always check your nails for sharp edges. To smooth sharp edges use a nail file.

    Removal of callus on a regular basis. Again this is preferably done by a podiatrist in this group of high-risk individuals.

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    Three pronged approach for diabetic foot ulcer management

    The three-pronged approach is:
    1. Diagnosis & treatment of good blood flow
    2. Infection control
    3. Pressure offloading to promote healing

    Treatment of poor blood flow

    Color Doppler of the blood vessels of the legs is performed to look for blood supply in the foot. If any blockage is found, it can be corrected either by angioplasty and ballooning of blocked vessels or surgical bypass of blocked vessels.

    Infection Control

    Proper and timely antibiotic treatment is crucial to prevent sepsis. Ulcer if present should be managed by proper dressing and wound care.

    Pressure offloading

    Foot Scan is done to map the normal & abnormal pressure areas when we walk. It predicts the areas under stress that are prone to ulceration in the future. Special insoles & footwear are designed to offload the high-pressure areas.

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    What are the benefits from the diabetes foot treatment in Jaipur?

    Treatment for diabetes foot in Jaipur care improves the quality of life and prevents the occurrence of gangrene and ulcers.

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    What is the expected outcome of the surgery?

    Your discharge depends on the procedure you have undergone. You may resume your activities depending upon your physical strength and the evaluation of post-operative condition.

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    Ischemia related FAQ

    What is Ischemia?

    In this condition, a blood clot is formed in veins most commonly in the legs, sometimes in the arms, and the patient experiences pain swelling and redness of the affected limb.

    Ischemia is any reduction in blood flow resulting in decreased oxygen and nutrient supplies to a tissue.

    Ischemia may be reversible or it may be irreversible, resulting in tissue death.

    Ischemia can be acute due to a sudden reduction in blood flow or chronic due to slowly decreasing blood flow.

    Ischemia can occur anywhere in the body. Heart attacks and strokes can both result from ischemia. Although less well known, ischemia can also affect the intestines, resulting in abdominal pain, bloody stool, and even intestinal rupture or gangrene. Peripheral ischemia can lead to loss of fingers or toes or the need for limb amputation.

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    What are the causes of ischemia?

    Ischemia is caused by a decrease in blood supply to a tissue or organ. Blood flow can be blocked by a clot, an embolus, or constriction of an artery. It can occur due to gradual thickening of the artery wall and narrowing of the artery, as in atherosclerosis. Trauma can also cause ischemia.

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    What are the risk factors of ischemia?

    Some of the risk factors of Ischemia are:

    • High blood pressure
    • High cholesterol or triglycerides
    • Increasing age
    • Male gender
    • Obesity or being overweight
    • Physical inactivity
    • Stress
    • Tobacco use
    • Trauma
    • Underlying vascular disease
    • Venous thromboembolism

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    What are the symptoms of ischemia (excluding heart and brain) ?

    Some of the symptoms of Ischemia are:

    • Abdominal discomfort when eating
    • Bloody stools (the blood may be red, black, or tarry in texture)
    • Diarrhea
    • Leg pain with walking or climbing stairs
    • Nausea with or without vomiting
    • Non-healing sores
    • Pain
    • Skin changes like pallor, bluish discoloration

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    What is the treatment of ischemia?

    Some of the treatments of Ischemia are:

    • Medications to control pain and dilate blood vessels
    • Medications to prevent ongoing clot formation
    • Medications to reduce the heart's workload
    • Oxygen therapy
    • Procedures to expand blood vessels
    • Surgery or procedures to remove clots
    • Surgery to bypass blocked blood vessels
    • Thrombolytic drugs to dissolve clots

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    How do we prevent ischemia?

    Some of the preventive measures for Ischemia are:

    • Controlling your blood sugar
    • Eating a healthy diet
    • Engaging in physical activity
    • Maintaining a healthy weight
    • Quitting smoking and other tobacco products
    • Reducing your stress level
    • Taking medications as recommended for heart disease, cholesterol, diabetes, or high blood pressure

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    Peripheral Artery Diseases related FAQ

    What is Peripheral Artery Disease?

    In peripheral artery disease patient's legs do not get enough blood due to narrowed arteries. Patient experiences leg pain in such conditions.

    Peripheral artery disease is a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to your limbs. In this your extremities usually legs don't receive enough blood according to demand causing leg pain while walking (claudication).

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    What are causes of peripheral artery disease?

    The cause of PAD may be an injury to a limb or blood clots in arteries or infection or unusual anatomy of ligaments or muscles, or radiation exposure.

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    What are the symptoms of peripheral artery disease?

    Below are few of the symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease:

    • Leg numbness or weakness
    • Coldness in leg or foot, especially when compared with other side
    • Painful cramps in hip, thigh or muscles after activiry, such as walking or climbing stairs (Intermittent Claudication).
    • Sores or wounds on toes, feet or legs that heals slowly
    • Hair loss or slower hair growth on feet and legs
    • Slower growth of toenails
    • Change in color
    • Shiny skin
    • No pulse or a weak pulse in legs or feet
    • Erectile dysfunction in men

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    What are the risk factors for peripheral artery disease?

    Below are a few of the risk factors of Peripheral Artery Disease:

    • Smoking
    • Diabetes
    • Obesity
    • High blood pressure
    • High cholesterol
    • Old age (>50 years of age)
    • Family history of peripheral artery disease, heart disease or stroke

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    How do we diagnose peripheral artery disease?

    Several options are available for diagnosing peripheral artery disease. Some of them are:
    1. Physical Examination - There is a weak or absent pulse below a narrowed part of the artery, decreased blood pressure in the legs, or non-healing ulcers.
    2. Ankle-Brachial Index (ABU) - ABI compares the blood pressure in the ankle with pressure in the arm.
    3. Ultrasound (Doppler) - Ultrasound is a painless non-invasive procedure that assesses the degree of circulatory impairment by evaluating the blood flow through arteries.
    4. Angiography - This test involves injecting a dye in arteries and thus blood flow through arteries can be assessed.

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    What are the treatment options for peripheral artery disease?

    Treatment involves symptom management and curbing the progression of atherosclerosis

    Lifestyle modification

    Exercise has been proven to create new blood vessels, and restore blood circulation in legs. Thus It is one of the most effective treatments for PAD. Even simple walking regimens, leg exercises and treadmill exercise programs three times a week can result in deceased symptoms in just four to eight weeks.

    Smoking Cessation

    Tobacco smoking increases risk for PAD, heart attack and stroke. Smokers are four times more prone of developing PAD than nonsmokers.


    High blood pressure and high cholesterol levels are usually managed through medications in order to prevent progression of disease. Antiplatelet medications may also be prescribed to help prevent blood clots.

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    What are the surgical treatment options for peripheral artery disease?

    Surgical options - Angioplasty and surgery

    In this procedure, a small hollow tube (catheter) is threaded through a blood vessel to the affected artery. There, a small balloon on the tip of the catheter is inflated to reopen the artery and flatten the blockage into the artery wall, while at the same time stretching the artery open to increase blood flow. Your doctor may also insert a mesh framework called a stent in the artery to help keep it open. This is the same procedure doctors use to open heart arteries.

    Surgical options - Bypass surgery

    Your doctor may create a graft bypass using a vessel from another part of your body or a blood vessel made of synthetic fabric. This technique allows blood to flow around or bypass the blocked or narrowed artery.

    Surgical options - Thrombolytic therapy

    If you have a blood clot blocking an artery, your doctor may inject a clot dissolving drug into your artery at the point of the clot to break it up.

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    Thrombosis related FAQ

    What is Deep vein thrombosis?

    In this condition, blood clot is formed in veins most commonly in legs, sometimes in arms and patient experiences pain swelling and redness of the affected limb.

    A deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly in the leg but it can also occur in the arm. The vein can be either partially or completely blocked.

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    What are causes of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)?

    When the blood flow through veins is altered due to any of following reasons clots are formed in veins:
    1. Reduced blood flow through the veins- Any situation which reduces mobility like accident, surgery or illness or long-distance travel (air, car, coach or train) reduces the blood flow through veins making it prone for clot formation.
    2. Changes in the clotting mechanism of the blood caused by pregnancy, some drug treatments and some inherited conditions causes clot formation in veins.
    3. Damage to the lining of the blood vessel wall in certain conditions like surgical procedures, trauma or inflammation makes blood cells prone to stick to lining of veins causing clot formation.

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    What are the risk factors of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)?

    Below are a few of the risk factors of DVT:

    • Inheriting a blood-clotting disorder
    • Prolonged bed rest, such as during a long hospital stay, or paralysis
    • Injury or surgery
    • Pregnancy
    • Birth control pills (oral contraceptives) or hormone replacement therapy.
    • Being overweight or obese
    • Smoking
    • Cancer
    • Heart failure
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • A personal or family history of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.e
    • Age. Age more than 60 increases your risk of DVT
    • Sitting for long periods of time, such as when driving or flying.

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    What are the signs and symptoms Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)?

    Below are a few of the symptoms of DVT:

    • Swelling in the affected leg
    • Pain in leg starting in calf
    • Cramps or soreness in legs
    • Red or discolored skin on the leg
    • A feeling of warmth in the affected leg
    • Unable to bear the weight
    • DVT nearly always affects one leg only

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    What are the complications of DVT?

    Pulmonary embolism is a dangerous condition that can develop if DVT is left untreated. In this condition, an embolus ( a blood clot) travels from the affected leg to the lungs and causes sudden shortness of breath, chest pain or discomfort that worsens when you take a deep breath or when you cough, causes lightheadedness or dizziness, fainting, rapid pulse and coughing up of blood.

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    How do we diagnose Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    A few of the methods to diagnose DVT are mentioned below:


    This is the most commonly used test for diagnosing DVT. If a clot is present, your doctor will be able to see the interrupted blood flow and make the diagnosis.


    If the ultrasound is inconclusive, a venogram is done. During this test, a dye is injected into the vein then an X-ray is taken over the area where your doctor suspects DVT. The dye makes the vein more visible, so interrupted blood flow would be easily seen.

    D-dimer test

    It measures the presence of a substance that's released when a blood clot breaks apart. If levels of the substance are high and you have risk factors for DVT, you likely have a clot.

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    How do we treat Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    A few of the methods to treat DVT are mentioned below:


    Blood thinners are medications that thin your blood like heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), or fondaparinux (Arixtra) are given to stop the progression of thrombus formation. If blood thinners don't work then thrombolytic drugs are intravenous to break the existing clot.

    Compression stockings

    Compression stockings can prevent swelling and might lower the chance of developing clots. Compression stockings reach just below your knee or right above it.


    Filters are usually put inside the large abdominal vein called the vena cava if the patient is not able to take blood thinners. This form of treatment helps prevent pulmonary embolisms by stopping clots from entering the lungs. But filters if left inside for too long, can actually cause DVT. Filters should be used for a short-term period until the risk of thromboembolism is reduced and blood-thinning medications can be used.

    DVT surgery

    Surgery is recommended in very large blood clots or clots that are causing serious issues, like tissue damage. During a surgical thrombectomy, the clot is located and removed through an incision into a blood vessel. Complications in surgery include infection, damage to the blood vessel, and excess bleeding.

    DVT exercise

    There are certain exercises to be done by individuals who are more prone to developing a blood clot. If you have to be seated for long periods, there are exercises you can do while sitting to keep your legs moving and help circulate blood.

    Knee pulls

    Bend your leg, and raise your knee toward your chest. Wrap your knee with your arms for a greater stretch. Hold this position for several seconds, then do the same exercise on the other side. Repeat these stretches several times.

    Foot pumps

    Place your feet flat on the floor. Keeping the balls of your feet on the floor, raise your heels. Hold for a few seconds, then lower the heels. Raise the balls of your feet off the floor, keeping your heels in place. Hold for a few seconds, then lower the balls of your feet. Repeat these pumps several times.

    Ankle circles

    Lift both feet off the floor. Draw circles with your toes in one direction for a few seconds. Switch directions, and draw circles for a few seconds. Repeat this exercise several times.

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    Traumatic Vascular Repair related FAQ

    What is Traumatic vascular repair?

    In trauma sometimes major vessels supplying blood to the limb gets injured, therefore to salvage the limb it is necessary to repair the injured vessels vascular treatment in jaipur.

    The term vascular treatment in jaipur trauma refers to injury to a blood vessel either artery or vein. These injuries are categorized by the type of trauma that caused them- blunt or penetrating injury.

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    What is vascular trauma?

    The term vascular treatment in jaipur trauma refers to injury to a blood vessel either artery or vein. These injuries are categorized by the type of trauma that caused them- blunt or penetrating injury.
    • A blunt injury occurs when a blood vessel is crushed or stretched.
    • A penetrating injury occurs when a blood vessel is punctured, torn or severed.
    • Either type of vascular repair treatment in jaipur trauma can cause the blood vessel to clot and interrupt blood flow to an organ or extremity, or cause bleeding which can lead to life-threatening hemorrhage.

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    How to diagnose vascular injury in jaipur?

    Below are the methods to diagnose vascular injury in jaipur:

    Physical examination

    A vascular injury can sometimes be diagnosed by physical examination alone.

    Duplex ultrasound

    Ultrasound is non-invasive, safe, repeatable, and very flexible, in contrast with other imaging modalities. Blood flow velocities and waveforms are displayed in real-time, revealing pathologic changes such as arterial thromboses and occlusions.

    CT scan

    This helps in locating the site of vessel injury.


    Angiography has a role when noninvasive methods yield inconclusive results.

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    What is the treatment of traumatic vessels?

    Surgical Bypass

    Open surgical repair of a blood vessel often requires a surgical bypass.
    • In this procedure, a prosthetic graft or a natural graft formed from a portion of a vein obtained from another location in your body, usually from your thigh or calf ios used for vascular repair treatment in jaipur.
    • If the injured vessel is a vein, it may be repaired with a graft, but sometimes can simply be tied off (ligated).

    Endovascular treatment

    It is less invasive than open surgery and may be an option for some vascular injuries in jaipur.
    • Balloon stenting is done to widen the injured vessel to restore blood flow.
    • A stent graft can be placed to provide internal support to help keep the vessel open.

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    Varicose Veins related FAQ

    What are Varicose Veins?

    Varicose veins are defined as “subcutaneous veins in the lower extremities which are dilated to ≥3 mm in diameter in the upright position”.
    They can occur in the axial superficial veins (GSV and SSV) and/or in any of their tributaries.
    Current thinking is that they represent primary venous disease and occur as a result of structural weakening of the vein wall, which can be focal in nature or diffuse. This weakening is most likely the result of underlying morphologic or biochemical abnormalities, although the exact nature of these abnormalities is not understood.

    Valvular incompetence in the superficial veins is usually present, but it is not clear if this represents an inciting factor or a secondary result of vein wall dilation.

    Varicose veins can also occur as a result of secondary venous disease—for example, as a sequela of DVT.

    Varicose veins constitute a progressive disease; remission does not occur except after pregnancy and delivery.

    During its course the disease produces symptoms and complications that usually prompt the patient to seek medical care.

    Symptoms and signs include
    lower extremity pain and swelling, particularly after prolonged standing,
    feeling of heaviness in the lower extremities.

    The most frequent complications are
    superficial thrombophlebitis,
    acute bleeding originating in one of the thin-walled varices,


    skin ulceration.

    Though affecting only a small fraction of the population with venous insufficiency, venous ulcers are reported to occur in up to 4% of people older than 65 year. Even though nonoperative management of venous disease—including compression, elevation, and skin care—is clearly beneficial, such therapy does not correct the underlying pathology, allows recurrence of symptoms if patients are unable to comply with the elevation and compression regimen, and is associated with a high incidence of recurrent ulceration and progression of disease.

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    What causes Varicose Veins in Jaipur?

    Varicose veins doctor result from abnormal inner walls or abnormal valves in blood vessels. Veins doctor have valves that act as one-way flaps which prevent blood from backflow and pooling. When these one-way valves don't work properly there is backflow and blood gets collected in veins causing them to enlarge. This is known as venous reflux or venous insufficiency.

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    What are the risk factors for varicose veins?

    Below are a few of the factors which cause Varicose Veins doctor in Jaipur:

    • Increasing age
    • Family history
    • Pregnancy and hormonal changes
    • Obesity
    • Prolonged standing
    • Prior deep venous thrombosis

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    What are the signs and symptoms of varicose veins?

    Below are a few of the symptoms of Varicose Veins doctor in Jaipur:

    • Aching pain
    • Itching
    • Burning
    • Leg swelling
    • Leg cramps
    • Numbness in the legs
    • Leg heaviness
    • Darkening of the skin
    • Rash on the legs
    • Skin ulcers
    • Skin shrinking
    • Prominent and visible veins
    • Telangiectasia in the affected leg (spider veins)
    • Swollen ankles
    • Venous eczema - skin in the affected area is red, dry, and itchy

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    What are the treatments available for varicose veins doctor in Jaipur?

    Several options are available for treatment of varicose veins in Jaipur. A few of them are listed below:

    Radio frequency ablation (RFA)

    Radio Frequency Ablation involves the passage of RFA probe inside a vein. This technique uses radiofrequency energy (instead of laser energy) to heat up and damage the wall inside a vein. This usually closes off a varicose vein in the leg.

    RFA is a minimally invasive procedure with minimal risk of scarring & post operative infection. It is generally performed under local anesthesia.

    It is a simple day care procedure which takes less than an hour and you will be discharged the same day. You may resume your regular activities and routine immediately.

    Endo venous laser ablation (EVLA)

    Laser surgery closes and shrinks the varicose vein and causes scar tissue within the vessel. This seals off the vein. Blood then flows through other nearby veins instead.


    In this process, a sclerosing solution is injected into the varicosed vein that stops the flow of blood, and the vein turns into scar tissue. Subsequently, the vein fades away and the disease subsides completely.

    Compression Stockings

    Compression stockings are elastic socks to be worn in affected leg. It reduces the pooling of blood and pumps blood from veins causing an increase in blood flow velocity and valve effectiveness. Compression therapy decrease venous pressure and relieves heavy and aching legs. Now a days graduated compression stockings are used which are tightest at the ankle and gradually loosen upwards. They are to be worn during day time only.

    Varicose vein open surgery in Jaipur

    This is an invasive surgery that involves removing the varicose veins in jaipur. The procedure involves ligation & stripping of vein.

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    What are the main causes of varicose veins?

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